"The Pyramids of Giza"

As the last of the original Seven Wonders of the World, Pyramids of Giza include a complex of World Heritage-listed ancient monuments. This includes the Great Pyramid also. Dating back to around 2560 BCE, the pyramids were built by thousands of workers under the command of successive pharaohs, with teams of men carving millions of stone blocks at nearby quarries, transporting them to the site and then lifting them into position. The pyramids were used as tombs for the pharaohs, with interior temples, chambers, and galleries filled with offerings. In ancient times they were considered to be among the Seven Wonders of the World. The ingenuity of the ancient Egyptians and the three main pyramids testify to the power of the pharaohs and -- Pyramids of Giza, also spelt Gizeh. In northern Egypt, on the west bank of the Nile River near Al-Jīzah (Giza), three 4th-dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 BCE) pyramids were erected on a rocky plateau. The designations of the pyramids—Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure—correspond to the kings for whom they were built. The second king of the 4th dynasty, Khufu had The northernmost and oldest pyramid of the group. 


                         From the Right: Khufu (biggest), Khafre & Menkaure Pyramids

Measurement Details of the Pyramids
Length of each side at the base averaging 755.75 feet (230 metres) and its original height being 481.4 feet (147 metres) the three pyramids in combination was considered as. Called the Great Pyramid, it is the largest of the three, one of the seven wonders once. The middle pyramid was built for Khafre, the fourth of the eight kings of the 4th dynasty; the structure measures 707.75 feet (216 metres) on each side and was originally 471 feet (143 metres) high. Each side measuring 356.5 feet (109 metres), and the structure's completed height was 218 feet (66 metres), the southernmost and last pyramid to be built was that of Menkaure, the fifth king of the 4th dynasty;). All three pyramids were plundered both internally and externally in ancient and medieval times. The pyramids have been almost entirely stripped of their outer casings of smooth white limestone and the grave goods originally deposited in the burial chambers are all missing. The pyramids no longer reach their original heights because of they. The Great Pyramid, for example, is now only 451.4 feet (138 metres) high. Only at its topmost portion outer limestone casing of Khafre is retained. Constructed near each pyramid was a mortuary temple, which was linked via a sloping causeway to a valley temple on the edge of the Nile floodplain. For the burials of other members of the royal family, subsidiary pyramids were used nearby.


                                                              Great Pyramids of Giza

Architectural Details of Pyramids 
Khufu's pyramid is perhaps the colossal single building ever erected on the planet. The Great Pyramid's core is made of yellowish limestone blocks, the outer casing (now almost completely gone) and the inner passages are of finer light-coloured limestone. Huge blocks of granite are used for building interior burial chamber. Approximately 2.3 million blocks of stone were cut, transported, and assembled to create the 5.75-million-ton structure, which is a masterpiece of technical skill and engineering ability. Compared to any other masonry constructed in ancient Egypt, internal walls as well as, those few outer-casing stones that still remain in place show finer joints. The entrance to the Great Pyramid is on the north side, about 59 feet (18 metres) above ground level. A sloping corridor ends in an unfinished underground chamber. It penetrates the rocky soil on which the structure rests, it descends from it through the pyramid's interior masonry. From the descending corridor branches an ascending passageway that leads to a room known as the Queen's Chamber and to a great slanting gallery that is 151 feet (46 metres) long. At the upper end of this gallery, a long and narrow passage gives access to the burial room proper, usually termed the King's Chamber. Granite is fully used in the room for entire lining and roofing is also with granite. From the chamber, two narrow shafts run obliquely through the masonry to the exterior of the pyramid; it is not known whether they were designed for a religious purpose or were meant for ventilation. The immense thrust exerted by the overlying masses of masonry above the King's Chamber is five compartments separated by massive horizontal granite slabs. These slabs were likely used to shield the ceiling of the burial chamber by diverting. In height and in length as the pyramid rose, Egyptians employed a sloping and encircling embankment of brick, earth, and sand, which was increased. Sledges, rollers, and levers were used to haul the stone blocks up the ramp. 

To construct, it demanded the labour of 100,000 men according to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus and the Great Pyramid took 20 years to be completed. When the Nile River was in flood, these men, who were agricultural labourers, worked on the pyramids only (or primarily) while there was little work to be done in the fields. By the late 20th century, however, archaeologists found evidence that more limited workforce may have occupied the site on a permanent rather than a seasonal basis. This figure is believable given the assumption.